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 本文摘要:这是一个解决数学和科学问题的网站A math and science problem-solving website可以资助你更高效地学习that can help you study more effectively.怀着爱与关切 普罗米修斯用土壤塑造了人类With love and care, Prometheus molded humanity out of clay.但人类孱弱 蒙受着庞大的痛苦But humanity was weak, and they suff


这是一个解决数学和科学问题的网站A math and science problem-solving website可以资助你更高效地学习that can help you study more effectively.怀着爱与关切 普罗米修斯用土壤塑造了人类With love and care, Prometheus molded humanity out of clay.但人类孱弱 蒙受着庞大的痛苦But humanity was weak, and they suffered greatly.为了使我们拥有与自然反抗的能力To empower us in our struggle against nature,普罗米修斯从神那里偷取并赠予我们一项神圣的科技Prometheus stole a divine technology from the gods and gifted it to us,火fire!为了造福人类 普罗米修斯果然违背众神Prometheus had defied the gods in service of humanity;为了服务弱者 他阻挡强权he defied the strong to serve the weak.但反抗和厘革需要支付价格But defiance and change come at a price,而强者也绝不会不战而屈and the powerful do not always submit without a fight.就这样 普罗米修斯被永远地束缚在岩石上Prometheus was bound to a rock for eternity,岩石上空天天都市有一只秃鹰袭击他 啄食他的肝脏where an eagle would descend upon him each day and eat his liver.一代延续着一代In generation after generation,普罗米修斯精神回合并带给了我们火the spirit of Prometheus returns to us and brings us fire.火 可以让人们取暖做饭Fire has the capacity to keep us warm and cook our food,但也可以用于缔造武器 扑灭人类but it also has capacity to create weapons and destroy us.我们必须要不停地学习如何审慎地驾驭 使用它We continually have to learn how to master it and use it carefully,否则我们将有自取死亡的风险or we risk self-destruction.社交媒体social media.爱德华·利顿曾说 笔尖胜过干戈Edward Lytton said that the pen is mightier than the sword.相交锋力 思想改变世界的能力更胜一筹Ideas have a greater potental at changing the world than force.而只有为了捍卫自身的思维及信仰It’s only in defence of our ideas, or our beliefs,我们才会选择最先举起刀剑that we choose to raise swords in the first place.几个世代以来 思维曾受限于书籍的流传For generations, ideas were limited to transmission by books.书籍被时间和空间所限制Books are limited in time and space.因此 书籍流传人类思想的速度就有了限度There’s a limit to how fast they can spread ideas.但互联网 在以光速广为传输着But the internet travels at the speed of light.如今 思想的流传速度是史无前例的The rate at which ideas can now spread is unprecedented.如果 笔尖胜于干戈If the pen is mightier than the sword,那互联网的威力是否胜于炸弹?is the internet mightier than the bomb?如果思想真的交锋力更强大And if ideas truly are more powerful than force,那我们应该建设性地使用它 而不是破坏性地we should use them constructively and not destructively,但现在来看这也是有可能的in so far as that’s possible.虽然整个的互联网都值得讨论While the entirety of the internet is worth discussing,但我们今天要相识的 是它更基础却普遍的一面today we’re going to be looking at a more basic, yet universal aspect of it,社交媒体social media.英国皇家协会为公共卫生做了一项报道 声明A report done by the Royal Society for Public Health states社交媒体的使用导致了一系列问题的增加that social media usage is associated with例如 焦虑 抑郁 睡眠质量差increased rates of anxiety, depression, poor sleep quality,身体形象问题和网上霸凌body image issues, and cyber bullying.实际上 年轻人焦虑和抑郁的比率In fact, rates of anxiety and depression in young people在近25年内 已增加了70%have increased by 70 % in the last 25 years.身体形象问题在两性中都存在Body image issues are a problem for both genders,但90%的青少年女孩苦于身材问题的困扰but 9 in 10 teenage girls say that they are unhappy with their body.70%的青少年履历过网络欺凌7 out of 10 teens have experienced cyberbullying而这其中的37%表现他们频繁遭遇网络霸凌and 37 % say they experience it very frequently.这项报道还发现 脸书 推特 Ins和SnapchatThe report found that Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat对年轻一代的幸福感有着整体的负面影响have an overall negative effect on the well-being of the younger generation.正因如此For this reason,人们越来越倾向于暂时远离社交媒体甚至抽身而退people are increasingly deciding to take a break from social media or walk away completely.这就有些得不偿失The benefits are often not worth the costs.社交媒体有助于我们表达自己 与他人建设联系But social media also helps us express ourselves, connect with others并获得高质量信息and get access to high-quality information.好比YouTube 会有效地增加人们的幸福感YouTube, for example,was found to have a net positive effect on well-being甚至资助缓解焦虑 抑郁和孤苦感and even help those who feel anxious, depressed, orlonely.只管它仍有着消极的一面Although, it still has its fair share of downsides.社交媒体对激进主义也有着重要的影响Social media also plays an important role in activism,好比2011年的埃及大革命such as in the 2011 Egyptian Revolution.专制政权总是试图阻止并控制信息的流动Oppressive regimes often try to prevent and control the flow of information,以便他们控制民众so they can control the people.而社交媒体就能避开这种极权主义控制Social media can be leveraged to bypass this sort of totalitarian control.无论你认为社交媒体是好是坏 都是对的Whether you think social media is good or bad, you’re right.就像火 我们依然在学习如何控制和掌握它It’s a flame and we’re still learning to contain and master it.可是 关于社交媒体的近期言论 态度不明But the current dialogue about social media is very low resolution.人们没有须要把这些革命性科技抛诸脑后People shouldn’t have to leave these revolutionary technologies behind,但也不应该负担因使用社交媒体But they also shouldn’t suffer negative impacts而对幸福感发生的消极影响to their well-being by using them.社交媒体总是被当做一种工具 它简直是Social media is often referred to as a tool, and it is.工具是用来辅助我们告竣目的的Tools are things that help us accomplish goals.可是 这个模糊的比力很是容易误导人们But this low-resolution comparison is actually pretty misleading.社交媒体是件工具Social media is a tool,但却差别于锤子那样的工具but it’s not a tool in the same way a hammer is.它更像是一座都会It’s much more like a city.想想 地球上有几多土地Think about how much land there is on the Earth.但我们却选择居住在这片土地上相对小的都会里But we choose to live in relatively small areas of land called cities.一座都会好比一个用来社交的高密度容器A city is a high density container for social interac


tions.它让我们更便捷地获得一切所需所想It allows us to get anything we need or want easier than we would这要比全靠自己做容易得多if we have to do it alone.都会就像活的工具 或者生物体Cities are like living tools or organisms,他们会发展 进化 甚至消亡they grow, evolve, and even die.现在 试想全球的网络上有几多网页Now think about how many webpages there are on the worldwide web.我们只选择占据网络中相对小的这一片领域We all choose to occupy a relatively small set of them就是社交媒体called social media.社交媒体网站也恰似一个用于社交的高密度容器Social media sites are also high-density containers for social interactions.所以 如果我们想明白社交媒体So, if we wanna understand social media,那就先从明白都会开始we should start by understanding cities.第二部门:数字都会一座都会由两个领域组成A city is made up of two worlds,思想领域和科技领域a world of ideas and a world of technology.思想领域就是文化世界The world of ideas is the world of culture.而文化则席卷了故事 神话或记述文Culture contains stories, myths, or narratives它们可以团结民众 论述价值 和规范行为that unite the people, describe what they value, and prescribe how to act.以罗马的创世神话为例Take the founding myth of Rome for example.这个神话的许多改编版都说Most variations of the myth say that罗慕路斯杀死了他的亲兄弟 雷姆斯Romulus killed his own brother, Remus,是为了建设罗马帝国in order to found Rome.有关这个神话的一种解读是One interpretation of this myth is that它为了见告并警醒罗马人it’s a reminder to the Romans罗马的荣誉远比手足亲情更重要that the glory of Roman is more important than even the love for your own brother.都会科技彰显了这个世界的思想和价值观The world of ideas and values manifests itself in the technology of the city.科技将故事详细化并有效地传承它The technology embodies the story and helpsperpetuate it.也使故事更容易地被演绎出来Technology makes the story easier to liveout.在斯巴达长大就很是差别于在雅典发展Growing up in Sparta would have been way different from growing up in Athens.在斯巴达 战士是人们最高贵的理想In one, the highest ideal was the soldier.而整个都会都是为了告竣这一理想而存在The entire city was designed to facilitate the achievement of this ideal.在雅典 最高理想则是成为修养良好的公民In the other, the highest ideal is something like the well-educated citizen.那么 这座都会则服务于这一理想的告竣And the city was designed to faciliate the achievementof this ideal.斯巴达拥有更多的兵营和训练场Sparta might have had more barracks and training grounds,而雅典可能拥有更多学校while Athens might have had more schools.固然 很有可能每个都会中真正的文化与科技Of course, it’s likely that the true culture and technology of each city比我说的要微妙得多is way more nuanced that I’m making it out to be.但这正是为了论证一点——But this is just to demonstrate a point:每座都会都建设在一个故事之上every city is built upon a story.出生或定居在谁人都会的公民都市Citizens that are born or live in that city或明确或蕴藉地学习这个故事learn the story explicitly or implicitly,这样他们才会发展 奋斗so that they can grow and thrive.一个好故事是有益于我们的A good story is useful to us;它资助我们接纳明智之举it helps us act in a way that is beneficial.科技让人们更容易付诸某些行动Technology makes certain actions easier.而当某些行为更容易告竣时When certain actions become easier,包罗这些行为的故事就变得更让人信服the story they are a part of becomes more believable.掌控故事的人控制着民众The person who controls the story controls the people,再加上恰当的技术 某些故事就会更有说服力and with the right technology, certain stories are easier to believe.如果社交媒体是一座都会If social media is a city,那它是建设在什么故事之上的?what story is it built on?如果斯巴达是为了造就战士 雅典为了高学历公民而存在If Sparta is designed to produce soldiers, and Athens to produce well-educated citizens,那社交媒体存在的目的是什么?what is social media designed to produce?我认为谜底是 消费者I think the answer is the consumer.社交媒体在勉力造就一种受众Social media tries to produce individuals他们寓目所有视频 阅读所有内容 点击所有网页who watches everything, read everything, and click on everything,这就是那群人的最高理想that is their highest ideal.你熟悉的一项科技可能最好地诠释这个故事This story is probably best embodied in a technology you’re familiar with:新闻推送the newsfeed.新闻推送的目的是为了视察你的互动Newsfeeds are designed to watch your interactions并将你花费在互动上的时间最大化and maximize the amount of time you spend on them.他们借迎合你的趣味来到达这个目的They do this by adapting to you.为了生长 他们不停地向我们提供新鲜刺激To evolve, they continually have to give us novel stimuli并视察我们将为此作何反映and see how we react to it.换句话说 他们总在向我们展现未见之事In other words, they are always presenting us with the unknown.而我们人类对未知领域有着强烈的好奇心Humans have an interesting relationship withthe unknown.我们会被吸引We are drawn to it.需要将那些未知分门别类We need to categorize it.未知事物要么提供发展和奖励的时机The unknown always presents an opportunity for reward and growth,要么会提供处罚和死亡的时机but it also presents an opportunity for punishment and death.你看 人类有种与生俱来的消极偏见You see, humans have an innate negativity bias.比起努力事物 消极事物更抓人眼球Negative things capture our attention more than positive things.这是因为消极事物可以终结我们This is because negative things can end us,而努力事物只是会让我们的生活更好一些while positive things can just make our lives better.在我们的意识里 威胁性事物比不具威胁性的更重要Threatening things weigh heavier on our mind than the non-threatening.因为新闻推送的完善是为了吸引注意力Because newsfeeds are optimized for attention,从恒久来看 他们的默认体验往往是负面的their default experience, over the long run is often a negative one.当新消息不停地涌现在你眼前When you’re continually presented with new information,更能吸引你注意的The negative and threatening stuff往往是消极的威胁性事物 而不是那些努力内容will always capture your attention more than the positive stuff.对威胁性内容的界说对每小我私家来说都不尽相同People find threatening varies from person to person.你关注的可能是 他人的外形条件是否更好You might focus on whether people are better looking than you,身体更强壮 头脑更智慧 事情更努力或更有才气stronger th


an you, smarter than you, worker harder, or more talented,又或者你可能会被虚假资讯所吸引or you may be drawn to fake news.既然我们花费更多时间去分析评估威胁Since we often spend more time analyzing and assessing threat,那自然我们就更关注它we pay more attention to it.这样 新闻推送会为我们推荐越来越多的同类信息And we get recommended similar things more and more on our newsfeeds.效果就是As a result,新闻推送经常会酿成消极性和比力的恶性循环our newsfeeds often become vicious cycles of而且是穿插着暂时奖励的比力negativity and comparison interspersed with the occasional reward.所以 我们该怎么解决这个问题?So, how do we solve this problem?因为 据显示YouTube是唯一一个Because it was the only social medium对青少年有网络努力影响的社交媒体shown to have a net-positive effect on the youth,所以 我认为应该从它身上寻找解决措施I think we should look to YouTube for some answers.我认为 YouTube与其它所有平台的最大区别是The one thing that I think makes YouTube vastly different from every other plat form它自身的搜索能力is the search capability.在YouTube成为一个大型的社交媒体之前Before YouTube became the big social medium it is,它首要的是一个搜索引擎it was first and foremost a search engine.为了缔造一个乐成的搜索引擎In order to create a successful search engine,你必须将大量的无条理信息举行整理you have to take massive amounts of unorganized information and organize it.通过这些整理事情By doing this,YouTube为其用户提供了越发有序的体验YouTube made a much more ordered experience for us, the users.输入有价值的信息或我们感兴趣的话题We could type in the thing we valued or the topic that we were interested in.就可以找到那些以兴趣和价值为基础的社区You can find a community based on that.我相信正是YouTube放权于我们对自身体验的控制I believe it’s the amount of control that YouTube gives us over our experience才使它更有努力意义that makes it more positive.我们可以搜索自己感兴趣的话题We can search for a topic that we’re interested in并找到自己喜欢的视频and find a video that we like.我们看到制作出该视频的频道We see that the channel that made it会创作更多的相关内容produces more content on that topic.所以我们订阅谁人频道So we subscribe to that channel.我们只需凭据自身的兴趣及价值观We start to build a subscription feed开始建设自己的订阅号推送that is purely based on our interests and values.我们的新闻推送监控搜索引擎 订阅号和视频记载Our newsfeeds monitor our searches, subscriptions, and video history并凭据监控提供应我们更多内容先容and offer us more recommendations based on that.YouTube体验主要围绕着我们的兴趣及价值观The YouTube experience largely revolves around our interests and values.从一开始 它就给予我们更多的自由去掌控自己的注意力It gives us a lot more control in directing our attention from the start.你可以一直搜索新事物 订阅 取消订阅You can always search new things, subscribe, unsubscribe,也可以围绕新的兴趣和价值观重置体验and restructure the whole experience around your new interests and values.YouTube文化一直以来都在建立社区The YouTube culture has always been about creating community.这点则区别于其它所有社交媒体This is way different from every other social medium因为在其它平台 你的大部门联系都是以because most of your connections on those platforms你的位置 学校 事情或其它随意的变量为基础are based on location, school, work or other random variables.大多数其它平台上的默认体验都被见告要看什么The default experience on most other platforms is being told what to look at而它们的文化也通常由你的身份和形象来支配and the culture is often dominated by status and image.所以我们如何将这一履历应用到其它社媒平台上呢?So how can we apply this lesson to other social media platforms?社交媒体网站就像是数据都会Social media sites are digital cities.而社媒的事情者就像治理机构Their workers are like the governing bodies.作为公民And, as the citizens,我认为我们应该拥有用于缔造数据家园的工具I think we should have the tools to make digital homes.一座数据家园就是一次定制体验A digital home is an ordered experience这种体验是你凭据自身的兴趣和价值观为自己获取的that you’ve made for yourself based on your interests and values.这才应该是默认体验It should be the default experience.当种种杂乱新奇的新闻推送成为默认体验When the chaotic novelty of newsfeeds are the default experience,却没有维护其秩序的工具时without any tools to bring order to them,我认为 久远来讲 我们将不停收获消极体验I argue that we’ll always have a negative experience in the long run.新闻推送的目的是缔造消费者Newsfeeds are designed to create consumers.另一方面 一座数据家园需要以人的进一步生长为目的A digital home on the other hand would be designed to furtheryour development.让我举个建立数据家园的例子Let me give you an example of creating a digital home.在推特上 我屏蔽了所有人On Twitter, I have everyone muted.我的新闻推送是空缺闲置的My newsfeed is blank and useless.相反 凭据关注原因 我将所有人都组成列表Instead, I have everyone organized into lists based on why I follow them.因为艺术或哲学 我关注有些人Some people I follow for art, some for philosophy,而有些 仅仅因为他们是朋侪and some because they’re friends.当我登陆推特时The default experience, when I log into Twitter默认体验不会凭据推特所认为的我的喜好isn’t to have a bunch of things recommended to me为我提供一堆推荐内容based on what Twitter thinks will capture my attention.相反 我自己可以选择想要阅读哪个列表Instead, it’s my choice to pick which list I want to read.屏蔽和列表功效可以强有力地避开默认的新闻推送The mute and list functions are incredibly powerful is bypassing the default newsfeed也可以在推特上建立数据家园and constructing something like a digital home on Twitter.我认为尽可能多地避开新闻推送I think it’s important to bypass the newsfeed和每个社交媒体中的默认体验很重要as the default experience on every social media, as much as it’s possible.凭据你的兴趣和价值观 专注于建立数据家园And focus on creating a digital home based on your interests and value.我认为另一点也很重要And I think it’s important就是 社交媒体公司要赋予我们实现这一可能的工具that social media companies give us the tools to make this possible.因为没有这些工具 我们就失去控制权Because, without these tools, we lose control,没有了掌控 那我们的注意力便不再属于自己and without control, our attention no longer belongs to us


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